By Eberhard Breitmaier
This concise assessment of terpenes and their functions covers the constitution, typical resources, organic and pharmacological results, in addition to chosen overall syntheses of the compound. This publication features a bankruptcy on constitution decision, in addition to extra info on biogenesis, polycyclic terpenes, gingkoloids and neo-hopanes.
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Extra resources for Terpenes: Flavors, Fragrances, Pharmaca, Pheromones
The oil of vetiver with its aromatic to harsh, woody odor, steam-distilled for perfumery from roots of vetiver grass Vetiveria zizanoides (Poaceae) which is grown chiefly in Haiti, India, and Java, contains some prezizaanes and zizaanes such as (+)-prezizaene, ()-7-prezizaanol, (+)-6(13)-zizaene and (+)-6(13)-zizaen-12-ol, also known as khusimol. 1]heptane core structure of campherenane. ()-Campherenol and ()- 48 3 Sesquiterpenes campherenone are constituents found in the camphor tree Cinnamomum camphora (Lauraceae) and in the ethereal oil of freshly pressed lemon juice.
Eberhard Breitmaier. Copyright © 2006 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. 2 Cyclophytanes 53 OH O H helicallenal 9-geranyl-D-terpineol More frequently occurring 10,15-cyclophytanes include very important representatives of the vitamin A series such as axerophthene, retinol, retinal and tretinoin. From those, the all-trans-isomers as drawn are the most stable among all 16 possible cis-trans configurations. 11-cis-Retinal (vitamin A aldehyde) attaches as an imine to an L-lysine moiety of the apoprotein opsin within the photoreceptor protein rhodopsin (visual purple) found in the rods of the retina.
3 Polycyclic Farnesane Sesquiterpenes 47 pleasant woody balsamic odor of this volatile oil which intensifies upon acetylation 18 of this sesquiterpenol. Isocedrane derivatives occur predominantly in Jungia species, exemplified by (+)4-isocedren-15-al in Jungia malvaefolia and (+)-4-isocedren-15,14-olide and other isocedrenes in Jungia stuebelii. 15 Zizaanes and Prezizaanes Bonds between C-2 and C-11, C-6 and C-10 as well as C-6 and C-15 of farnesane formally link up the tricyclic sesquiterpene skeleton prezizaane, which converts into zizaane by methyl shift.