By adinugroho, wahyu catur ; suryadiputra, INN ; Saharjo, Bambang hero ; Siboro, Labueni
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Extra resources for Manual for the Control of Fire in Peatlands and peatland forest
To use fire only for certain purposes and on a limited scale. Furthermore, Saharjo et al. (1999) state that for forest fire control to be successful a comprehensive control plan needs to be drawn up in advance. This plan will form a basis for carrying out prevention, suppression and use of fire in a controlled manner in the forests and surrounding areas. The forest fire control plan is an integral part of the forest management plan. The facts from several fire incidents in Indonesia show that fire management in Indonesia is focused more on suppression than on prevention.
60 cm, but none of the fibric peat appeared to have been burnt. Manual for the Control of Fire in Peatlands and Peatland Forest 93 Chapter 2. Importance of Controling Land and Forest Fire in Peatlands Areas Table 1. No Standard Criteria for Damage to Physical Characteristics of Peat due to Fire Parameter Damage • • • • • • • • 1 Soil Structure 2 Porosity (%) 3 Bulk density (g/cm3) • • • 4 Available water content (%) • • • 5 Elasticity 6 Soil penetration (kg/cm2) 7 Soil consistency Damaged soil structure Reduced infiltration of water Plant roots do not develop Increased rate of soil erosion Reduced porosity Reduced infiltration Increase in surface flow Diminished supply of water and air for plants Compaction has occurred Plant roots do not develop Diminished supply of water and air for plants Water content is reduced Soil’s water retention capacity declines Plants lack water Method of Measurement Direct observation Calculation from bulk density and maximum water retention capacity Ring sample-gravimetry Pressure plate-gravimetry • Soil loses its elasticity • Rate of erosion increases COLE • • • • • Penetrometer Soil penetration increases Water infiltration decreases Plant roots do not develop Soil loses its plasticity Rate of erosion increases Fill it by hand *Source: Appendix to Government Regulation PP No 4, 2001 Changes to the peat’s chemical characteristics The effect of fire on the peat’s chemical characteristics is also determined by the level of decomposition and the supply of fuel on the surface, which will give rise to heating and the production of mineral rich ash.
Table 2. No Standard Criteria for Damage to Chemical Characteristics of Peat due to Fire Parameter 1 C-organic (%) 2 N total (%) 3 Ammonium (ppm) 4 Nitrates (ppm) 5 P (ppm) 6 pH 7 Electrical Conductivity (m S/cm) Damage • Decrease in organic C content • Decreased soil fertility • Affects physical characteristics of soil • Decrease in total N content • Decreased soil fertility • Decrease in available Ammonium content • Decreased soil fertility • Increase in Nitrate content • Poisons ground water • Increase in available P content • Nutrient balance is disturbed • pH increases or decreases • Nutrient balance is disturbed • Rise in electrical conductivity • Root growth is disturbed • Increase in salinity Method of Measurement Walkley and Black or CHNS Elementary Analysis instrument Kjeldahl or CHNS Elementary Analysis instrument Kjeldahl or specific electrode or autoanalyser Kjeldahl or specific electrode or autoanalyser Spectrophotometer or autoanalyser pH-meter Conductometer * Source: PP No 4, 2001 Disturbance to the peat soil decomposition process, due to the death of micro-organisms in the fire Loss/destruction of natural seedlings previously buried in the peat soil layer, with the result that succession or development in the population and composition of forest vegetation are also disturbed or altered, resulting in a decline in biodiversity Damage to the hydrological cycle, such as a decreased capacity for rainwater to seep into the soil, reduced transpiration from vegetation, declining soil humidity, and an increase in surface run off.