By Hiltmar Schubert (Editor), Andrey Kuznetsov (Editor)
The publication includes lectures of a world NATO-Russian complicated examine Workshop approximately Detection and Disposal of Improvised Explosives utilized by terrorists. The ARW was once an occasion of a chain of workshops ahead of, facing detection of explosives by way of diverse analytical tools and varied form and compositions of the explosive cost. The formula ''Improvised Explosive'', IE, is a brand new expression for terrorist explosives, which have been produced ordinarily by way of a professional laymen in a home-made demeanour. IE may be any chemical compound or mix of advertisement components, able to an explosive response after initiation by way of a detonating machine. The disposal of such IE is hooked up with a distinct probability, simply because IE are in lots of instances even more risky and routinely extra delicate than advertisement or army explosives.
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Additional resources for Detection and Disposal of Improvised Explosives (NATO Security through Science Series B: Physics and Biophysics)
5 times reserve in system sensitivity. Generally saying, the above considerations show, that theoretically the inherently non-contact and standoff optical methods have quite high sensitivity and thus can be successfully applied to the detection of extremely low amounts of chemical substances. There are many experimental studies, many of which became classical, devoted to detection and measurements of gases and vapors by use of optical methods . For example in  measurements of OH radical concentration of 5u106 cm-3 are reported.
The efficiency of up-to-date stabile detection systems is high and also the deterrence effect is important. 2 DETECTION OF IEDS BY MOBILE SYSTEMS Mobile systems are used for search in various areas, in which some IED should be presence. A portable electronic detector, mobile x-ray equipment, dogs and colour reactions are the main mobile detection tools. Important role in some scenarios should play detector of electronic components of detonators and other components of initiation train controlled by initiation command from mobile phones or radio (Eagle Locator used in Russia).
All these products have in their composition substantial amount of Ammonium Nitrate (AN). Therefore, the detection of these products should be oriented on AN, which has relatively high vapour pressure. The problem consists in the fact, that traces of AN, and of other inorganic nitrates are often present in surroundings and the probability of false alarms is rather high. 4 IMPROVISED EXPLOSIVES The exact definition of this group of explosives is not quite clear. We can assume, that also explosive compounds used in army and civil explosives, but prepared by improvised procedures by unauthorised subjects can be counted in this group.