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By Colin R Martin

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The recording of data utilising this type of scale using a limited range of descriptors but ranged from least to most (or vice versa) is known as using a likert-type scale. From a statistical point of view, it can be seen that the data are being measured using a ranking instrument and, therefore, 40 Design and analysis of clinical nursing research studies the data are essentially of the ordinal type. The following example uses data from a study examining pain perception after general surgery. Patients have been randomly allocated to one of two groups.

Continuing with the blood pressure estimations, deviation is calculated by subtracting the mean score from each patient’s blood pressure measurement. 2. A closer examination of the individual score variances reveals a problem if the deviation were summarised by simply adding the individual variances together; a total deviation score under this rubric would always result in zero because of the presence of negative deviation scores. The solution that is utilised to get around this difficulty is to square all of the deviations, then to sum them and then to divide this sum by the number of observations.

1 The normal distribution 24 Design and analysis of clinical nursing research studies significant difference between these scores as a function of the IV manipulation. Using the example of withdrawal symptomatology (DV) and family history status (IV) in alcohol-dependent individuals from Chapter 2, let us suggest the following summary data. 2. Although a descriptive examination of the data reveals that the FH+ alcoholics have a higher (more severe) mean withdrawal rating than FH- alcoholics, how can we conclude that the difference between the groups is big enough for us to conclude that the difference is statistically significant?

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