By Giovanna Lombardi, Yanira Riffo Vasquez
This ebook presents within the first half an summary of dendritic phone (DC) biology and the function of DCs in a few human ailments. the second one a part of the e-book illustrates many of the manner that DCs will be manipulated for immunotherapy to both result in tolerance in autoimmunity and transplantation or improve the immune responses equivalent to in an infection or melanoma.
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Additional resources for Dendritic Cells
Thus IFN-I is influencing not only the innate immune system, but also the antigen-specific antiviral immune response by acting on the three different effector cell types of the adaptive immune system. 2 Conventional Dendritic Cells In the mouse, conventional DC from spleen comprise three different DC subsets distinguished by their expression of the T cell markers CD4 and CD8 namely CD4+ DC, CD8α+ DC, and double-negative (DN) DC (Vremec et al. 2000). These DC subsets are also present in murine lymph nodes alongside 1–2 additional DC populations, which express moderate and high levels of DEC-205, respectively, and which are thought to represent DC that have recently immigrated from the periphery via lymphatic vessels (Anjuere et al.
2006; Hondo et al. 2005). Interestingly, manipulation of endosomal maturation by adding cationic lipids can alter the cytokines that are induced in response to TLR7 ligands in conventional DC and PDC. Thus the functional consequences of TLR activation can be cell-type specific due to differences in the signaling pathways that are engaged in response to ligand recognition. 3 Tissue vs. Blood-Derived Dendritic Cells Interstitial DC interact with pathogens at the site of infection such as skin or mucosal tissue.
S. Diebold Upon detection of viral PAMP by cytoplasmic PRR specialized in viral recognition, a cellular programme is initiated, which leads to IFN-I production, RNA degradation, and induction of apoptosis (Samuel 2001). The PRR involved in these responses include the protein kinase R (PKR) and 2 –5 -oligoadenylate synthetase (OAS), which are both activated upon binding of viral dsRNA in the cytoplasm of infected cells. Further cytoplasmic PRR were identified more recently, which include the helicases RIG-I and MDA5 and the DNA-sensing molecule DAI (Takaoka et al.