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By Linda Wilson-Pauwels, Elizabeth J. Akesson

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Featuring 3-dimensional, colour-coded illustrations, this vintage paintings describes how the 12 significant nerve structures attach the mind to the physique structures they keep an eye on. The drawings exhibit the direction and place of every nerve, in addition to its sensible modalities: this permits scholars to benefit not just the site of every nerve procedure, yet how the structures act in live performance to accomplish particular features. this article serves as a instructing software for all healthiness technology scholars who research neuro- and gross anatomy, together with scholars in medication, dentistry, pharmacy, nursing and actual treatment.

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Extra resources for Cranial Nerves: Anatomy and Clinical Comments

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Figure III­8 Pupillary Light Reflex Page 36 When the visceral motor axons in cranial nerve III are damaged, light shone in the affected eye does not cause constriction of its pupil (loss of the direct light reflex). However the light causes pupillary constriction of the opposite, unaffected eye (preservation of the consensual light reflex); this is provided that the optic nerve on the affected side is intact.  III­9 A and B).  III­9 A and B).  III­9 C). The pathways that mediate these actions are not well understood, but it is clear that the reflex is initiated by the occipital (visual) cortex that sends signals to the oculomotor and Edinger­Westphal nuclei via the pretectal region.

Downward, abducted eye position due to the unopposed action of the superior oblique and lateral rectus muscles.  Paralysis of accommodation (see visceral motor component). This collection of symptoms is termed ophthalmoplegia.  The pathways that provide for input to the oculomotor, trochlear, and abducens nuclei are discussed and illustrated in Functional Combinations. The trochlear nerve is a somatic motor nerve that innervates a single muscle in the orbit, the superior oblique muscle.  It is likely that these axons also occur in humans.

The pathways that provide for input to the oculomotor, trochlear, and abducens nuclei are discussed in Functional Combinations.  The nerve also innervates the levator palpebrae superioris that elevates the upper eyelid.  It is likely that these also occur in humans.  Axons from the oculomotor nucleus in the midbrain travel into the cone of muscles in the orbit and terminate in the appropriate muscles.  III­3).  The medial subnucleus supplies the contralateral superior rectus, and the central subnucleus (a midline mass of cells at the caudal end of the complex) supplies the levatores palpebrae superioris bilaterally.

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