By Michael J. Cousins AM MB BS MD (SYD) FAN, Phillip O. Bridenbaugh MD, Daniel B. Carr MD DABPM FFPMANZCA(Hon), Terese T. Horlocker MD
This entire, authoritative textual content provides the clinical foundations and scientific perform of neural blockade in either local anesthesia and the administration of soreness. The descriptions and illustrations of soreness mechanisms are thought of vintage examples. The Fourth variation has been subtle for readability and flows logically from rules and pharmacology, to suggestions for every anatomic area, to purposes. This variation has new co-editors and a number of other new chapters on themes together with neurologic issues, neural blockade for surgical procedure, remedy of ache in older humans, and problems in discomfort medication.
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Extra info for Cousins and Bridenbaugh’s Neural Blockade in Clinical Anesthesia and Pain Medicine
In 1928, Eisleb synthesized tetracaine, which was then introduced into clinical practice in 1932. Although dibucaine and tetracaine proved to be potent, long-acting local anesthetics, their increased systemic toxicity limited the usefulness of these agents for many of the regional anesthetic techniques in which large volumes of drugs Chapter 1: The History of Regional Anesthesia 9 TA B L E 1 - 3 CHRONOLOGY OF LOCAL ANESTHETIC AGENTS Cocaine 1860 1884 Purification and naming by Niemann (Germany) First clinical use, topical, by Koller (Germany) First clinical use, nerve block, by Halsted (USA) Procaine 1904 Synthesis by Einhorn (Germany) 1905 Clinical introduction by Braun (Germany) Stovaine 1904 Synthesis by Fourneau (France) Cinchocaine (Nupercaine, dibucaine) 1925 Synthesis by Meischer 1930 Clinical introduction by Uhlmann Amethocaine (Pontocaine, Tetracaine) 1928 Synthesis by Eisleb 1932 Clinical introduction Lignocaine (Lidocaine) ¨ 1943 Synthesis by Lofgren and Lundqvist 1947 Clinical introduction (Gordh) Mepivacaine 1956 Synthesis by Ekenstam and Egner 1957 Clinical introduction (Dhun´er) Prilocaine 1959 Synthesis by Lofgren and Tegner 1960 Clinical introduction by Wielding Bupivacaine 1957 Synthesis by Ekenstam 1963 Clinical introduction by Widman and Telivuo Etidocaine 1971 Synthesis by Takman 1972 Clinical introduction by Lund Ropivacaine 1957 Synthesis by Ekenstam 1997 Clinical introduction Levobupivacaine Early First commercial preparation by chiroscience in 1990s collaboration with Mather (Australia) and Tucker (UK) 1995– First clinical use 1998 were required.
For example, he observed that a 10-mL injection of 2% procaine at T10 could completely relieve the pain of a severe biliary colic for 3 hours. The use of segmental paravertebral block for the differential diagnosis of painful conditions was ¨ an original idea of Lawen’s. At the suggestion of Pal, it was then tried by Brunn and Mandl in 1924 (94), as a therapeutic measure in the hopes of obtaining pain relief in acute cholecystitis, but without significant success. 5% procaine diagnostically prior to resection of the affected paravertebral nerves (95).
Lundqvist, like many early investigators, started using lidocaine on his own toes and fingers and even for spinal anesthesia. In August 1943, Lundqvist called another friend— Lagergreen—and said that a friend of his had synthesized a new local anesthetic. They arranged a meeting with representatives of the drug company Pharmacia and asked if Lagergreen would come as their medical expert and demonstrate finger blocks on volunteers. This he did, performing five to ten of the blocks, and the results were demonstrated for the executives of Pharmacia.