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By Peter Liddel

Peter Liddel deals a clean method of the previous challenge of the character of person liberty in old Athens. He attracts widely on oratorical and epigraphical proof from the past due fourth century BC to examine the ways that rules approximately liberty have been reconciled with rules approximately legal responsibility, and examines how this reconciliation used to be negotiated, played, and provided within the Athenian law-courts, meeting, and during the inscriptional mode of book. utilizing glossy political conception as a springboard, Liddel argues that the traditional Athenians held liberty to include the significant tasks (political, monetary, and armed forces) of citizenship.

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Pol. 18; Ar. Ach. 377–8, 502–3. The most recent discussion has suggested that attempts by politicians to censure, by way of prosecution, the criticism that they received in comedy were unsuccessful, and reflect a shared understanding that it was the role of comedy to criticize political activity: Sommerstein (2004a). Sommerstein’s (2004b) idea that the freedom of speech of comedy was no different from that of the average Athenian citizen is challenged by Halliwell’s (2004) suggestion that comedy was immune from the laws of slander: Halliwell (2004).

It should therefore be no surprise that, even in forensic and symbouleutic oratory, the notion of either individuals or the collective demos speaking recklessly, with excessive freedom of speech, attracted criticism. While Wallace shows that the evidence for Athenian restriction of intellectual freedom of speech is limited and problematic, it is the case that the Athenians prosecuted those who spoke impious things, Diogenes being an example (Lys. 17; FGrH IIIb Suppl. I 199–200). 105 A wide range of sources attest to an excess of freedom of speech as an equivalent of exousia.

Rawls is most interested in justice on the level of the basic structure of society, the way in which major social institutions allocate basic rights and duties and distribute the division of advantages from social cooperation. Just institutions function according to publicized rules so that those engaged in them know what limitations on conduct there are and what kinds of action are permissible and which are forbidden. The major social institutions of concern are those that define people’s rights and duties towards society and heavily sway their life prospects, and consist of the political constitution, economic and social arrangements, and the family.

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