By E. Spiess (auth.), D. F. Williams, W. H. Schmitt (eds.)
Organized on a product classification foundation, this quantity presents an up to date overview of the cosmetics and toiletries in a without problems digestible shape. Authors speak about the explanation of uncooked fabrics choice, the formula and improvement of goods that meet the calls for of a global industry position, product performances, and safeguard and caliber aspects.
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Additional resources for Chemistry and Technology of the Cosmetics and Toiletries Industry
3 45 Perfumes Perfumery is a complex subject in its own right (see chapter 8), but most of the detailed knowledge is required in the creation of the fragrances; the more mundane process of using these fragrance creations in the product formulation requires less ability, although selection may not be so easy [36- 38]. Occasionally, one is required to develop a shampoo as a li ne extension to a fragrance-led range. Where the range already contains toiletry products it may only be necessary to include an existing perfume at the appropriate level.
Thickness is invariably equated to concentration, value for money, and 'richness' in the layman's perception of the finished product. Polymeric materials used for thickening shampoos include a variety of natural gums, such as guar, karaya, locust bean, carragheenan, and tragacanth. In practise these materials, in unmodified form, find little use in today's shampoos, and this class of thickeners is dominated by cellulosic derivatives, such as hydroxyethyl cellulose, carboxymethyl cellulose, and hydroxypropyl methylcellulose.
Disulphide bonds- cystine is a 'double' amino acid, containing COOH and NH 2 groups at both ends of the molecule, with a disulphide bond in between. g. powerful reducing agents at high pH as in most permanent-waving lotions). Cross-linking mechanisms ensure that the keratin helices are held together in a fairly rigid structure. The order in which the side chains occur is very variable; steric hindrance is minimised by most of the side chains adopting an outward-facing position, such that reactive groups on the side chains are more exposed to the possibility of chemical reaction with hair-care products.