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By J. J. Moore

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E. 350 kJ of heat energy must be added to the system in order that one mole of carbon will reduce one mole of zinc oxide at 1373 K. 1 Standard enthalpy change for a reaction The enthalpy, H, of a substance can be defined as its heat (energy) content. e. e. e. heat is given out during the reaction (at constant pressure). While for an endothermic reaction, as H2 > Hx then AH is positive and heat is absorbed during the reaction (at constant pressure). Fig. 1 gives typical heat energy profiles for exothermic and endothermic reactions.

These are determined as follows. (i) values for elements The enthalpy of an element, by convention, is taken to be zero at the reference temperature (usually 298 K ) , providing the element is in its normal physical state under the conditions considered, and becomes finite at any other temperature. For example #? e. g. C(graphite) + 0 2 ( g ) — ^ C 0 2 ( g ) ; AHf98 = -393 kJ m o l -1 so # Î 9 8[ C 0 2( g ) ] 1 2 Data b o o k s ' furnish values of = A/^2 [ C 0 2( g ) ] 9 8 = -393 k J m o r 1 (AHf) for compounds, usually at 298 K.

Calculate its standard enthalpy change of formation at this temperature referring to a data book where necessary. e. AH for a reaction depends only on the initial and final states). The great utility of this law is in calculating enthalpy changes for reactions which cannot be carried out experimentally. Example 1 The standard enthalpy change of formation for carbon monoxide is required. The reaction is represented as: C(s) 4- ^ 0 2 ( g ) ^ C O ( g ) ; AHf; = ? 1) but cannot occur stoichiometrically* because of the tendency of the carbon to form carbon dioxide giving rise to a mixture of products (CO and C 0 2 ) .

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