By Sven Plein
The ebook presents an creation to CMR imaging that's comprehensible and fascinated by the correct info had to utilizing CMR imaging in scientific perform. Cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) imaging has develop into a longtime imaging modality with an increasing variety of medical symptoms. whereas some time past the provision of CMR imaging used to be constrained to a couple expert centres the tactic is turning into extra broadly on hand. so much clinicians consequently have to have a basic realizing of the diagnostic details that may be acquired from CMR imaging, the indicators for referral in addition to contraindications and boundaries of the strategy. For cardiologists and radiologists particularly, CMR imaging becomes a regimen diagnostic software and coaching curricula in Cardiology or Radiology replicate this development by means of more and more not easy education in CMR imaging.
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Water molecules bound to large molecules are slowed down and more likely in interact, leading to faster T2 relaxation and shorter T2 relaxation times. , muscle) tend to have shorter T2 values. Conversely, when the water content is increased, for example by an inflammatory process, the T2 value also increases. 5 Relaxation Times, Gradient Echoes and Spin Echoes 35 O O H H H H H O 90° RF pulse H H H O Spin-spin interactions t Signal (Mxy) Signal Decay due to T2 relaxation (caused by spin-spin interactions) t Fig.
Whereas the coordinates of the image are spatial position (x, y) the coordinates of k-space are 1/x and 1/y, sometimes referred to as spatial frequencies kx and ky. The value of each point in k-space therefore relates to how much of a particular spatial frequency is contained within the image. A spatial frequency is difficult to picture. An image consisting of a single spatial frequency looks like a wave propagating across the image with bright and dark peaks and troughs (Fig. 2). A low spatial frequency (arising from a point near the centre of k-space) has peaks and troughs far apart and thus contributes mostly the signal content and contrast of the image.
The RF field is normally applied as a short pulse, known as an RF pulse. Is the Larmor Frequency the Same for Other Nuclei? As we saw in Chap. 3, magnetic resonance imaging is normally performed using hydrogen nuclei, however, there are other MR-active nuclei such as the most common isotopes of phosphorus (31P) and sodium (23Na), as well as a much less common of carbon (13C). In each case the constant in the Larmor equation is different, leading to different resonant frequencies for each nucleus for a particular magnetic field strength.