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By R. J. Jackson, S. L. Hunt, J. E. Reynolds, A. Kaminski (auth.), Peter Sarnow (eds.)

This quantity bargains finished stories at the mechanism of cap-independent translation of viral and mobile mRNA molecules. The chapters comprise contemporary findings on cap-independent translation by way of inner ribosome binding of picornaviral, hepatitis C viral and sure mobile mRNAs and disuss the mechanisms underlying cap-independent translation of adenoviral and warmth surprise mRNAs. utilizing new applied sciences within the box, new good points of the eukaryotic translational equipment were exposed and their roles in translational initiation and its rules are probed.

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31 2 Characteristics of Encephalomyocardltls Virus Translation In V'vo and In Vitro . . . . . 32 3 Primary Structure of the Encephalomyocardltls Virus 5'NCR . . . . . . . . . . . . 33 4 Secondary and Tertiary Structure of the Encephalomyocardltls Virus 5'NCR ........... 35 5 The Internal Ribosomal Entry Site ............................................ 36 6 Cis-acting Elements Within Type 2 Internal Ribosome Entry Sites ................... 43 7 Trans-Acting Factors Involved In Internal Ribosome Entry Site-Dependent Translation .

The 5' boundary of the poliovirus IRES was in fact mapped as lying downstream of this point (NICHOLSON et al. 1991). However, this view of the RNA replication signals and the IRES as distinct nonoverlapping and noninteracting elements may be oversimplistic. It has been reported that mutations in the first 100 nt of the poliovirus 5' NCR, outside the region normally considered the IRES, can reduce the efficiency of expression of a linked luciferase reporter cistron in vivo (SIMOES and SARNOW 1991).

Which is associated with proteolysis of e1F-4Fy (ETCHISON et al. 1982). However, EMCV RNA can be translated in poliovirus-infected cells, indicating that its initiation does not required elF-4Fy and is thus cap-independent (DETJEN et al. 1981). This conclusion is supported by recent studies involving dicistronic polioviruses (ALEXANDER et al. 1994; MOllA et al. 1992). EMCV RNA is translated efficiently in different eukaryotic cell-free Iysates, including rabbit reticulocyte lysate (RRL) and Iysates derived from chick embryo fibroblasts, HeLa cells, murine L cells, Krebs II and Ehrlich ascites carconima cells (GOLINI et al.

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