By Ulrike Bross
Sustained financial development in vital and japanese ecu nations relies between others on a thorough technological restructuring. The tool of know-how audit helps coverage makers in designing applicable thoughts for shaping technology and know-how guidelines during this procedure. The e-book develops in its conceptual half a technique for the research of strengths and weaknesses of R&D structures and destiny components of competitiveness that are transferred additionally to different international locations during times of extreme technological improvement. those instructions are according to overseas top perform of overview learn and functional reviews within the transition context. The empirical a part of the publication offers the findings of a know-how audit within the box of biotechnology in Hungary. in line with a world comparability of luck components in biotechnology, promising parts for Hunagrian technology and are pointed out. The booklet presents guidance for researchers and coverage makers and provides an in depth survey of the present kingdom of biotechnology in Hungary.
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Extra resources for Bio-Technology Audit in Hungary: Guidelines, Implementation, Results
In addition, there is a relationship of frequent exchange of ideas between the research sector, which contributes to the stock of knowledge, and the development sector. This model describes innovation within firms or between different actors in the innovation process. The previous description of the innovation process illustrates how the transfer of scientific results in the commercial innovation of a marketable product or process may impose high demands on all actors involved. The extent of these demands are influenced by the effectiveness of the functioning of the national system of innovation, a concept introduced by Freeman and Lundvall.
G. Dyker 1994) or concentrate on the political economy of the research system (Mayntz/Schimank/Weingart 1995). One example for the technology oriented analysis is a contribution assessing a science park in Russia (Batstone/Westhead 1996) or an investigation of the Hungarian research infrastructure (Tournemine/Muller 1996). In several countries, first attempts at evaluating the knowledge infrastructure have been made, for example in Slovenia, Hungary, Romania and Ukraine (Balazs 1994, Inzelt 1996b, lsakova 1996, Segal Quince Wicksteed 1995).
Data bank inquiries only played a role in one sector. g. patent analyses, export analyses as a function of technology intensity of the product) were not used. 1-2: Analysis and Evaluation Methods in the Sectoral Studies of the "Technology Audit" in Hungary Sectoral Audits Analysis and evaluation method A c D E • •• •• • •• Written questionnaire Enterprises 0 0 Research institutions Interviews Enterprises Research institutions •• •• •• •• •• • • • • • • • • • • 0 0 Expert discussions (with other institutions) 0 Data bank searches International comparisons Use of method B e 0 intensive (1 0-20 actors) 0 0 • limited (5-9 actors) none Written questionnaires proved to be a useful instrument of technology audit.