By Mr Rex Pope, Rex Pope
This Atlas covers British background from the mid-eighteenth century to the current. issues contain demography, agriculture, delivery, exchange, labour hobbies, faith, schooling, healthiness and housing.
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Additional info for Atlas of British Social and Economic History Since C. 1700
11 per cent of national income in 1800. In von Tunzelmann’s view, substantial economies in power costs were not achieved until high-pressure stationary engines became widely used during the mid-nineteenth century. Coupled with the limited savings achieved by the improved steam-engine was its relatively slow adoption by industrialists, at least in certain parts of the country. This may be demonstrated using evidence obtained from factory inspectors’ returns. Those of 1838 provide the earliest reliable details, though they relate only to textiles.
The industry lost approximately 20 per cent of its workforce as a result of wartime concentration and more attractive alternative job opportunities in the post-war period. This provided the stimulus to long-overdue technological innovation which, along with industrial concentration and the reduction of the labour force, gathered pace in the 1960s and 70s. 6). 1 million out of 7 million woollen and worsted spindles and 67,200 out of 78,000 mules were in Yorkshire and Lancashire. In consequence, the impact of decline has b een felt in a limited geog raphical area.
There were areas, including the manufacture of soaps, paints, coal tar intermediates, and explosives, where the British industry performed well. Sulphuric acid production (widely considered a measure of a country’s industrialization) had reached a million tons by 1900—still a quarter of the world total. The initiative, however, in new techniques had passed to the United States 37 and Germany. The former country led in electro-chemical processes, Germany in the application of org anic chemistry to the production of synthetic materials.