By George O'Brien
Книга An Essay at the monetary results of the Reformation An Essay at the fiscal results of the ReformationКниги Экономика Автор: George O'Brien Год издания: 2003 Формат: pdf Издат.:Ihs Press Страниц: 176 Размер: 2,9 ISBN: 0971828628 Язык: Английский 34 (голосов: 1) Оценка:This paintings bargains a special viewpoint at the upward thrust of capitalism and socialism and the impact of the Reformation. particular issues comprise effects of trust within the deepest judgment of scriptures; separation of religious and secular lifestyles; distinction among Lutheran and Calvinist teachings on economics; the Calvinist proposal of vocation; its notion of fabric luck as an indication of divine election; its compliment of frugality and disdain for good looks. additionally lined is socialism as a response to excesses of capitalism; the way within which Protestantism had reinforced secular authority; diminuation of charity towards the negative following Reformation; materialism underlying socialism abetted by means of Protestant emphasis on earthly prosperity; egalitarian rules traceable to Protestantism; and the convenience with which socialism combined into Protestant suggestion. it is a specific paintings of financial philosophy in that it examines the ideological explanations of the industrial alterations of the interval, hence delivering a clean philosophical standpoint instead of basically the mathematical or statistical facets of the query.
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Apart from this one instance, there is nothing in the utterances of the leading reformers on economic matters 32 eConoMIC effeCTs In General which calls for comment, as they all substantially accepted the ethical ideals of the Middle Ages, without, however, accepting the authoritative foundation on which those ethical ideals were based, or the sanctions by which they had formerly been translated – to some extent at least – into practical rules of life. No further light can be thrown upon the main subject of this essay by a further inspection of the reformers’ writings in search of other references to usury and similar economic topics; and we must next pass on to inquire in what way the economic thought of Europe was indirectly influenced as the result of the teaching of the reformers on other subjects, not directly economic in their bearing.
81 Another of Luther’s statements was, that, “We now see the people becoming more infamous, more avaricious, more merciless, more unchaste, and in every way worse than they were under the papacy”; and again, “That we are now so lazy and cold in the performance of good works is due to our no longer regarding them as a means of justification. We teach that we attain to God’s grace without any works on our part. ”82 Melancthon’s83 friend, Camerarius, complained that, “Mankind have now attained the goal of their desires – boundless liberty to think and act exactly as they please.
We shall consider the practical consequences of Calvinism on economic 30 eConoMIC effeCTs In General thought in detail later, but at present it is sufficient to say that Calvin had a more enlightened conception of the necessities of everyday life than Luther ever possessed. In this respect he resembled Zwingli;17 and, indeed, both were probably influenced by the relatively advanced industrial condition of Switzerland compared with Germany. “The German and Swiss reformers” according to Wiskemann, “are united in their war against Rome and all the spiritual and temporal evils which the people suffered from the rule of the hierarchy, but the Swiss reformers – at least, Calvin – display a greater insight into economic processes.