By Robert Wilson
Contiuous casting of non-ferrous metals has been practiced for good over a hundred years. the method has many merits over static ingot and ebook mold casting, crucial being greater yield, diminished power intake and relief in manpower, with a consequent relief in price. This booklet offers an account of the way non-stop casting has built and the way the method can be utilized inside an engineering surroundings for casting a variety of copper-based alloys and worthy metals, together with gold and silver, and chosen nickel alloys.
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Extra resources for A practical approach to continuous casting of copper-based alloys and precious metals
For heavy strip and billet production this generally works fairly well. Backlash and system inertia can render the system inaccurate and in most proprietary equipment has been replaced. 1 AC SERVO DRIVE Using micro-process control with AC servo drive and backlash-free gearing between drive motor and rollers, a high degree of accuracy is obtained. Maintaining a tight grip on the strip, rod or section is achieved by hydraulic clamping. Proprietary withdrawal systems have modular pre-set controls on all parameters with correction feedback on items such as acceleration, pulse length setting and linear casting speed.
Water circulates along the inner annulus to the exit. Primary cooling of the liquid metal entering the die is 20 Continuous Casting GRAPHITE METAL LIaUID MET AL DIE SOLIDIFICATION LOCATION LIQUID FRONT OF BOTTOM PROBES HORIZONTAL CASTING PERIPHERAL COOLED DIE VERTICAL CASTING Fig. 17 Probe-cooled die assembly for tube. by conduction across graphite die wall/copper tube interface. Secondary cooling is provided by graphite guide inserts along the length of the assembly. Insulation in the form of alumina silicate or zirconia discs fitted between the copper cooler 'hot end' and the graphite die shoulder reduces the cooling effect on the liquid metal entering the die.
In most applications chrome/chrome-alumel (Type K) thermocouples are used. 5 to 2 mm. The couples are relatively inexpensive and therefore can be tested and replaced as required. Monitoring on all thermocouples in the system is generally provided and listed on a temperature recorder. In many installations today the temperature profiling is fed into data-logging equipment. 22, during casting under steady-state conditions a uniform temperature plateau will be maintained, increasing or dropping only with speed of casting.